Search By:


Administrative Units


Ecological Units

Biodiversity Hotspots

Bio-geographic Zones


Coastal & Marine Eco-systems


Conservation Units

World Natural Heritage Sites

Biosphere Reserves

Tiger Conservation Units

Project Tiger

Project Elephant

Important Bird Areas

Ramsar Sites

Sundaland Hotspot

Sundaland bordered by three hotspots covers parts of Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, the Nicobar Islands and all of Brunei Darussalam. Landscapes are wide ranging and include lowland forests, sandy and rocky coastlines, beach forests, mangroves, swamps, montane forests, scrubby subalpine forests and rocky mountain peaks. The hotspot encompasses an area of 1,501,063 sq km.

The Sundaland hotspot has over 25,000 plants, 2,000 species of orchids and some of the world's largest flowers belonging to the Rafflesia family. The hotspot is also home to 380 mammal, 769 bird, 452 reptile, 244 amphibian and 950 freshwater fish species.

The endangered endemic bird species include the Bali starling (Leucopsar rothschildi) and Javan hawk-eagle (Spizaetus bartelsi). Flagship species of the region include the two species of orangutans-the Bornean (Pongo pygmaeus) and the Sumatran (Pongo abelii)-Proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) and two species of rhinos-the Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus) and Sumatran (Dicerorhinos sumatrensis). Reptilian inhabitants include the Bornean earless monitor lizard (Lanthanotus borneensis), false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii), mangrove terrapin (Batagur baska) and the painted terrapin (Callagur borneoensis). The amphibian fauna is very poorly studied but till date nearly 80% of those recorded are endemic.

Forest destruction, for logging and agriculture, has been a major threat to the forests. Illegal, uncontrolled trade of wild animals for food and medicine, and forest fires have been major threats to this hotspot.

Around 179,723 sq km or 12% of the hotspot area is under protection. International conservation organisations actively working in the region include the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund, BirdLife Indonesia, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, BirdLife International, Conservation International, Wildlife Conservation Society and Conservation Action Network Program.

[The information has been sourced from the Conservation International website on biodiversity hotspots ( Accessed in February 2008.]

ATREE, Tel: 91-80-23530069, 91-80-23533942