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Wallacea Hotspot

The Wallacea hotspot occupies a total land area of 338,494 sq km and extends across parts of Indonesia, Bali, Borneo, New Guinea and the whole of Timor Leste. Vegetation consists of tropical rainforests, savanna woodlands and lowland forests with short trees.

The hotspot has 10,000 plant, 222 mammal, 647 bird, 222 reptile, 48 amphibian and 250 freshwater fish species. Notable among the bird species are the maleo (Macrocephalon maleo), a distinctive megapode, the caerulean paradise-flycatcher (Eutrichomyias rowleyi) and the Sangihe white-eye (Zosterops nehrkorni). Mammalian inhabitants of the hotspot include the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), the lowland anoa (Bubalus depressicornis) and the mountain anoa (Bubalus quarlesi), and the Sulawesi palm civet (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii). Reptile endemism is nearly 99% and the best known reptile species is the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), the largest lizard in the world. A single species of turtle the McCord's sideneck turtle or Roti Island snake-necked turtle (Chelodina mccordi) is found here. Invertebrates include the enormous birdwing butterflies, tiger beetles and the world's largest bee (Chalocodoma pluto).

Clearing of land for agriculture, commercial forestry, housing, forest fires and mining have led to a significant loss of forest cover. Only about 24,387 sq km or 7% of the land is under some form of protection. Conservation projects by Birdlife Indonesia, Conservation International and the World Bank are helping to restore the habitat.

[The information has been sourced from the Conservation International website on biodiversity hotspots ( Accessed in February 2008.]

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